1. by + doing 通过……方式 如：by studying with a group
如：I live by the river. I have to go back by ten o'clock.
The thief entered the room by the window.
The student went to park by bus.
2. talk about 谈论，议论，讨论
如：The students often talk about movie after class. 学生们常常在课后讨论电影。
talk to sb. === talk with sb. 与某人说话
①What/ how about +doing sth.? 如：What/ How about going shopping?
②Why don't you + do sth.? 如：Why don't you go shopping?
③Why not + do sth. ? 如：Why not go shopping?
④Let's + do sth. 如： Let's go shopping
⑤Shall we/ I + do sth.? 如：Shall we/ I go shopping?
4. a lot 许多 常用于句末 如：I eat a lot. 我吃了许多。
5. too…to 太…而不能 常用的句型 too+adj./adv. + to do sth.
如：I'm too tired to say anything. 我太累了，什么都不想说。
6. aloud, loud与loudly的用法 三个词都与"大声"或"响亮"有关。
形式。如: He read the story aloud to his son.他朗读那篇故事给他儿子听。
She told us to speak a little louder. 她让我们说大声一点。
如: He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in public. 他不当众大声谈笑。
7. not …at all 一点也不 根本不 如：
I like milk very much. I don't like coffee at all.
not经常可以和助动词结合在一起，at all 则放在句尾
8. be / get excited about sth.=== be / get excited about doing sth.
=== be excited to do sth. 对…感兴奋 如：
I am / get excited about going to Beijing.===
I am excited to go to Beijing. 我对去北京感到兴奋。
9. ① end up doing sth 终止做某事，结束做某事 如：
The party ended up singing. 晚会以唱歌而结束。
② end up with sth. 以…结束 如：
The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终。
10. first of all 首先. to begin with 一开始 later on 后来、随
11. also 也、而且（用于肯定句）常在句子的中间
too 也 (用于肯定句) 常在句末
12. make mistakes 犯错 如：I often make mistakes. 我经常犯错。
make a mistake 犯一个错误 如：I have made a mistake. 我已经犯了一个错误。
13. laugh at sb. 笑话；取笑（某人） 如：Don't laugh at me!不要取笑我!
14. take notes 做笔记，做记录
15. enjoy doing sth . 喜欢做…乐意做… She enjoys playing football.她喜欢踢足球。
enjoy oneself 过得愉快 如：He enjoyed himself. 他过得愉快。
16. native speaker 说本族语的人
17. make up 组成、构成
18. one of +(the+ 形容词比较级)+名词复数形式 …其中之一
如： She is one of the most popular teachers. 她是最受欢迎的教师之一。
19. It's +形容词+(for sb. ) to do sth. (对于某人来说)做某事…
如：It's difficult (for me ) to study English. 对于我来说学习英语太难了。
句中的it 是形式主语，真正的主语是to study English
20. practice doing 练习做某事 如：
She often practice speaking English. 她经常练习说英语。
21. decide to do sth. 决定做某事 如：
LiLei has decided to go to BeiJing . 李雷已经决定去北京。
22. unless 假如不，除非 引导条件状语从句
如：You will fail unless you work hard..假如你不努力你会失败。
I won't write unless he writes first. 除非他先写要不我不写
23. deal with 处理 如：I dealt with a lot of problem.
24. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/ 某事
如：Mother worried about his son just now. 妈妈刚才担心他的儿子。
25. be angry with sb. 对某人生气 如：I was angry with her. 我对她生气。
26. perhaps === maybe 也许
27. go by (时间) 过去 如： Two years went by. 两年过去了。
28. see sb. / sth. doing 看见某人正在做某事 强调正在发生
see sb. / sth. do 看见某人在做某事 如：
如： She saw him drawing a picture in the classroom.她看见他正在教室里画画。
29. each other 彼此
30. regard… as … 把…看作为…. 如：
The boys regarded Anna as a fool. 这些男孩把安娜看成傻瓜。
31. too many 许多 修饰可数名词 如：too many girls
too much 许多 修饰不可数名词 如：too much milk
much too 太 修饰形容词 如：much too beautiful
32. change… into… 将…变为…
如：The magician changed the pen into a book. 这个魔术师将这本书变为一本书。
33. with the help of sb. == with one's help 在某人的帮助下
如：with the help of LiLei == with LiLei's help 在李雷的帮助下
34. compare … to … 把…与…相比
如：Compare you to Anna, you are lucky.你和安娜相比，你是幸运的。
35. instead 代替 用在句末，副词（字面上常不译出来）
instead of sth. / doing sth. 代替，而不是 用在句中，动词
如：Last summer I went to Beijing. This year I'm going to Shanghai instead.
I will go instead of you. 我将代替你去。
He stayed at home instead of going swimming. 他呆在家里而不是去游泳。